Volume 4, Issue 5, September 2016, Page: 113-119
Hearing Impairment in a Semi-urban Community in North-Western Nigeria
Abdulazeez Ahmed, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Bayero University/Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria
Hamisu Abdullahi, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Bayero University/Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria
Nafisa Bello-Muhammad, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Bayero University/Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria
Emmanuel S. Kolo, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Bayero University/Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria
Kazeem Jamiu, ENT Unit, Federal Medical Centre, Birnin Kudu, Jigawa, Nigeria
Mustapha Salihu, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Bayero University/Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria
Lateef Lawal, ENT Unit, Department of Surgery, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Kaduna, Nigeria
Mohammed Sani, ENT Unit, Department of Surgery, Ahmadu Bello University Teaching Hospital, Zaria, Kaduna, Nigeria
Haruna Kabir, National Ear Care Centre, Kaduna, Nigeria
Abdulhakeem A. Aluko, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Bayero University/Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria
Abdulrazak Ajiya, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Bayero University/Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria
Muhammad G. Hasheem, Department of Otorhinolaryngology, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Bayero University/Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria
Fatimah I. Tsiga-Ahmed, Department of Community Medicine, Faculty of Clinical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Bayero University/Aminu Kano Teaching Hospital, Kano, Nigeria
Received: Aug. 27, 2016;       Accepted: Sep. 5, 2016;       Published: Sep. 24, 2016
DOI: 10.11648/j.ejpm.20160405.12      View  3537      Downloads  152
Abstract
Population based studies to measure the burden of hearing impairment are scarce in sub-Saharan Africa due largely to lack of allocation of resources. This study aims to report the prevalence and possible causes of hearing impairment in a semi-urban community. A cross-sectional community based survey using the World Health Organization Ear and Hearing disorders survey protocol was conducted in 2013. Adults and children hearing assessment was conducted via Pure-tone audiometry for air conduction thresholds at 0.5-4kHz with otoscopy. Ambient noise level was at 45dB. A total of 91 participants were tested with a hearing loss prevalence of 29(31.9%). Fifty three (58.2%) were females, population age range was 5-60years, with a mean age of 14.13years (SD: 13.51). Ear diseases were a major contributor to hearing loss 61(67.0%) affecting 5-14year old age-group, followed by unknown causes 19(20.9%). Other major causes of hearing impairment in this cohort were infectious diseases 8(8.8%), genetic conditions 2 (2.2%) and non-infectious conditions 1(1.1%) respectively. There was a significant difference in mean audiometric thresholds for the right and left ears respectively. The prevalence of hearing impairment in this community may indeed be quite high and calls for concerted efforts by relevant authorities to reduce the burden in our communities.
Keywords
Prevalence, Hearing Loss, Causes, Community, Audiometry
To cite this article
Abdulazeez Ahmed, Hamisu Abdullahi, Nafisa Bello-Muhammad, Emmanuel S. Kolo, Kazeem Jamiu, Mustapha Salihu, Lateef Lawal, Mohammed Sani, Haruna Kabir, Abdulhakeem A. Aluko, Abdulrazak Ajiya, Muhammad G. Hasheem, Fatimah I. Tsiga-Ahmed, Hearing Impairment in a Semi-urban Community in North-Western Nigeria, European Journal of Preventive Medicine. Vol. 4, No. 5, 2016, pp. 113-119. doi: 10.11648/j.ejpm.20160405.12
Copyright
Copyright © 2016 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Reference
[1]
Ullauri A, Smith A, Castrillon R, Salazar C, Garces P. WHO Ear and Hearing Survey–Ecuador 2009. Otolaryngology -- Head and Neck Surgery. 2010; 143 (2 suppl): P254.
[2]
Murray CJL, Lopez AD, Black RE, Mathers CD, Shibuya K, Ezzati M et al. Global burden of disease 2005: call for collaborators. Lancet. 2007; 370: 109-10.
[3]
World Health Organization. Global estimates on prevalence of hearing loss. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2012 [January 8, 2015]; Available from: http: //www.who.int/pbd/deafness/WHO GE_HL.pdf?ua=1.
[4]
Stevens G, Flaxman S, Brunskill E, Mascarenhas M, Mathers CD, Finucane M. Global and regional hearing impairment prevalence: an analysis of 42 studies in 29 countries. The European Journal of Public Health. 2011.
[5]
Stephen AO, Okomanyi A. Pattern of Hearing Loss as seen at the Federal Medical Centre Lokoja, Nigeria: A Five Year Retrospective Study. Asian Journal of Pharmacy, Nursing And Medical Sciences. 2014; 2 (4): 87-9.
[6]
Kodiya AM, Afolabi OA, Ahmad BM. The burden of hearing loss in Kaduna, Nigeria: A 4-year study at the National Ear Care Centre. Ear Nose Throat J 2012; 91: 156-63.
[7]
Olusanya BO, Okolo AA, Aderemi AA. Predictors of hearing loss in school entrants in a developing country. Journal of postgraduate medicine. 2004; 50 (3): 173-8. Epub 2004/09/21.
[8]
Olusanya B, Wirz S, Luxon L. Community-based infant hearing screening for early detection of permanent hearing loss in Lagos, Nigeria: a cross-sectional study. Bulletin of the World Health Organization. 2008; 86 (12): 956-63.
[9]
Pascolini D, Smith A. Hearing Impairment in 2008: A compilation of available epidemiological studies. International journal of audiology. 2009; 48 (7): 473-85.
[10]
Bitner-Glindzicz M. Hereditary deafness and phenotyping in humans. British medical bulletin. 2002; 63: 73-94. Epub 2002/09/27.
[11]
Acmg. Genetics Evaluation Guidelines for the Etiologic Diagnosis of Congenital Hearing Loss. Genetic Evaluation of Congenital Hearing Loss Expert Panel. ACMG statement. Genetics in medicine: official journal of the American College of Medical Genetics. 2002; 4 (3): 162-71. Epub 2002/08/16.
[12]
Hone SW, Smith RJ. Medical evaluation of pediatric hearing loss. Laboratory, radiographic, and genetic testing. Otolaryngol Clin North Am. 2002; 35 (4): 751-64. Epub 2002/12/19.
[13]
Westerberg BD, Lee PK, Lukwago L, Zaramba S, Bubikere S, Stewart I. Cross-sectional survey of hearing impairment and ear disease in Uganda. J Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2008; 37 (6): 753-8. Epub 2009/01/09.
[14]
Westerberg BD, Skowronski DM, Stewart IF, Stewart L, Bernauer M, Mudarikwa L. Prevalence of hearing loss in primary school children in Zimbabwe. Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2005; 69 (4): 517-25. Epub 2005/03/15.
[15]
Abdel-Hamid O, Khatib OM, Aly A, Morad M, Kamel S. Prevalence and patterns of hearing impairment in Egypt: a national household survey. Eastern Mediterranean health journal. 2007; 13 (5): 1170-80. Epub 2008/02/23.
[16]
Olusanya BO, Luxon LM, Wirz SL. Screening for early childhood hearing loss in Nigeria. J Med Screen. 2005; 12: 115-8.
[17]
Dunmade AD, Segun-Busari S, Olajide TG, Ologe FE. Profound bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in nigerian children: any shift in etiology? J Deaf Stud Deaf Educ 2007; 12 (1): 112-8.
[18]
Ahmed AO, Tsiga-Ahmed FI, Hasheem MG, Ajiya A. Hearing screening techniques for referral purposes: Our experience from a rural setting. Ann Trop Med Public Health. 2013; 6 (2): 173-8.
[19]
Baraky LR, Bento RF, Raposo NR, Tibirica SH, Ribeiro LC, Barone MM, et al. Disabling hearing loss prevalence in Juiz de Fora, Brazil. Brazilian journal of otorhinolaryngology. 2012; 78 (4): 52-8. Epub 2012/09/01.
[20]
Beria JU, Raymann BC, Gigante LP, Figueiredo AC, Jotz G, Roithman R, et al. Hearing impairment and socioeconomic factors: a population-based survey of an urban locality in southern Brazil. Revista panamericana de salud publica = Pan American journal of public health. 2007; 21 (6): 381-7. Epub 2007/09/01.
[21]
Gondim LM, Balen Sa Fau - Zimmermann KJ, Zimmermann Kj Fau - Pagnossin DF, Pagnossin Df Fau - Fialho IdM, Fialho Ide M Fau - Roggia SM, Roggia SM. Study of the prevalence of impaired hearing and its determinants in the city of Itajai, Santa Catarina State, Brazil. Braz J Otorhinolaryngol. 2012; 78 (2): 27-34.
[22]
Petit L, Simon G, Joliot M. Right hemisphere dominance for auditory attention and its modulation by eye position: an event related fMRI study. Restor Neurol Neurosci. 2007; 25: 211-25.
[23]
Seidman MD, Siegel B, Shah P, Bowyer SM. Hemispheric dominance and cell phone use. JAMA Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2013; 139: 466-70.
[24]
Al Khabori M, Khandekar R. Unilateral hearing impairment in Oman: a community-based cross-sectional study. Ear, nose, & throat journal. 2007; 86 (5): 274, 7-80. Epub 2007/06/22.
[25]
Al'shardzhabi I, Tsygankova ER. The prevalence of hearing impairment among the elementary school pupils in the city of Sana, the capital of Yemen. Vestn Otorinolaringol. 2014 (2): 54-7. Epub 2014/05/02.
[26]
Yiengprugsawan V, Hogan A, Strazdins L. Longitudinal analysis of ear infection and hearing impairment: findings from 6-year prospective cohorts of Australian children. BMC pediatrics. 2013; 13: 28. Epub 2013/02/26.
[27]
Czechowicz JA, Messner AH, Alarcon-Matutti E, Alarcon J, Quinones-Calderon G, Montano S, et al. Hearing impairment and poverty: the epidemiology of ear disease in Peruvian schoolchildren. Otolaryngol Head Neck Surg. 2010; 142 (2): 272-7.
[28]
Ahmed AO, Kolo ES, Abah ER, Oladigbolu KK. An appraisal of common otologic disorders as seen in a deaf population in North-Western Nigeria. Annals of African Medicine. 2012; 11 (3): 153-6.
[29]
Adhikari P, Kharel DB, Ma J, Baral DR, Pandey T, Rijal R, et al. Pattern of otological diseases in school going children of Kathmandu valley. Arq Int Otorhinolaringol. 2008; 12: 502-5.
[30]
Garg S, Chadha S, Malhotra S, Agarwal AK. Deafness: Burden, prevention and control in India. The National Medical Journal of India. 2009; 22: 79-81.
Browse journals by subject