Volume 6, Issue 1, January 2018, Page: 23-28
Current Status and Underlying Problems of Eradication of Poliomyelitis in the Remaining Endemic Countries
Anthony Chibuogwu Ike, Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria; Department of Biological Sciences, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria
Eleazar Emmanuel Reward, Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
Emmanuel Msugh Mbaawuaga, Department of Biological Sciences, Benue State University, Makurdi, Nigeria
Obianuju Obiajulu Nnabuife, Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria
Ibuchukwu Nkeonyenasoya Alexandra Orabueze, Department of Microbiology, University of Nigeria, Nsukka, Nigeria; Department of Medical Microbiology, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria Enugu Campus, Enugu, Nigeria
Received: Feb. 6, 2018;       Accepted: Feb. 28, 2018;       Published: Mar. 15, 2018
DOI: 10.11648/j.ejpm.20180601.15      View  1045      Downloads  33
Abstract
In 1988, the World Health Assembly of the World Health Organization (WHO) launched the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), with the resolve to interrupt transmission of wild poliovirus (WPV) worldwide by the year 2000. Eighteen years after the intended year of eradication, that target is yet to be achieved. To investigate the reasons behind this, a check of recent publications on poliomyelitis and polio virus was carried out. The databases and websites of institutions and organizations involved in the polio eradication programme were also checked. The findings showed that although the goal of interrupting polio transmission has not been meet, a lot of progress has been made. By 2006, transmission of WPV had been interrupted in all but four countries: Afghanistan, India, Nigeria and Pakistan. In February 2012, India was delisted from the list of polio-endemic countries leaving the remaining 3 countries as the only endemic countries in the world. Wild type 2 and 3 viruses have both been eliminated from circulations. The number of polio cases in the remaining endemic countries has reduced drastically. Nigeria is close to the target, but is yet to be certified polio-free, having experienced a setback in 2016. However, as long as transmission of WPV continues in these countries, the world cannot be free from the disease, as these countries serve as reservoirs of infection and sources of export of the virus to other countries. To be able to achieve the target of interrupting the transmission of WPV in the remaining endemic countries, the identified problems, particularly conflict in the countries concerned, will have to be factored into the programmes geared toward eradication of the disease.
Keywords
Poliomyelitis, Poliovirus, Eradication, Wild Type, Endemic, Afghanistan, Pakistan, Nigeria
To cite this article
Anthony Chibuogwu Ike, Eleazar Emmanuel Reward, Emmanuel Msugh Mbaawuaga, Obianuju Obiajulu Nnabuife, Ibuchukwu Nkeonyenasoya Alexandra Orabueze, Current Status and Underlying Problems of Eradication of Poliomyelitis in the Remaining Endemic Countries, European Journal of Preventive Medicine. Vol. 6, No. 1, 2018, pp. 23-28. doi: 10.11648/j.ejpm.20180601.15
Copyright
Copyright © 2018 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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