Volume 8, Issue 4, July 2020, Page: 36-42
Effective and Health Ways of Minimizing Eruption of COVID-19
Eliphus Ndereba, Department of Communication, Media, Film and Theatre Arts, Kenyatta University, Nairobi, Kenya
James Akuma, Department of Statistics and Actuarial Sciences, Jomo Kenyatta University of Agriculture and Technology, Nairobi, Kenya
Received: Apr. 9, 2020;       Accepted: May 3, 2020;       Published: Jun. 9, 2020
DOI: 10.11648/j.ejpm.20200804.11      View  249      Downloads  129
The phylogenetic analyses that have been done on the emergence and causative agents of the 2019 novel Coronavirus Disease have focused on the epidemiology and the identification of the specific causative agents linked to Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome for Corona viruses (SARS-COV), the viral pathogen that causes SARS-COV-2 (Currently, COVID-19). The virus is associated mostly with bats’ genetic composition that’s detrimental to Human cells if in contact. Although there are readily established measures to curb the outbreak and transmission of the disease, there is much yet to be done especially in the affected African countries where most medics rely on the abroad research guidance. The world’s Medical attendants have been left with a dire need to establish the sufficiently effective and immediate measures and/ or guidelines on how to minimize the outbreak and widespread interspecies infections of SARS-COVs. Apart from the ways identified by the World Health Organization, there are several other strategies that the African countries can rely on to mitigate the outbreak of SARS-COV-2 which has always been diagnostically experienced as respiratory tract disorders: Pneumonia. Among the widely implemented measures in most nations are: quarantining the suspected victims and infected individuals, partial/total lockdowns, abolishment of (over) crowding, abolishment of bare handshakes, encouraging keeping of the social distance, use of gloves and masks, use of disinfectants on public resources and premises, using sanitizers for hand washing and banning air transport to prevent import or export of new COVID-19 infections.
Phylogenetic, SARS-COV, SARS-COV-2
To cite this article
Eliphus Ndereba, James Akuma, Effective and Health Ways of Minimizing Eruption of COVID-19, European Journal of Preventive Medicine. Vol. 8, No. 4, 2020, pp. 36-42. doi: 10.11648/j.ejpm.20200804.11
Copyright © 2020 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/) which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Cotten, M., Watson, S. J., Kellam, P., Al-Rabeeah, A. A., Makhdoom, H. Q., Assiri, A., Al-Tawfiq, J. A., Alhakeem, R. F., Madani, H., AlRabiah, F. A., et al. (2013). Transmission and evolution of the Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus in Saudi Arabia: a descriptive genomic study. Lancet 382, 1993–2002.
Sasmita Poudel Adhikari, Sha Meng1, Yu-Ju Wu1, Yu-Ping Mao2, Rui-Xue Ye1, Qing-Zhi Wang1, Chang Sun1, Sean Sylvia3, Scott Rozelle4, Hein Raat5 and Huan Zhou1. (2020). Epidemiology, causes, clinical manifestation and diagnosis, prevention and control of coronavirus disease (COVID-19) during the early outbreak period: a scoping review Available online: http://doi.org/10.1185/s0249-020-005446-x.
World Health Organization. Novel Coronavirus—Japan (ex-China). Available online: https://www.who.int/ csr/don/16-january-2020-novel-coronavirus-japan-ex-china/en/ (accessed on 19 January 2020).
National Health Commission of People’s Republic of China. An update on the incidence of pneumonia with novel coronavirus infection as at 24:00 on 31 January 2020. http://www.nhc.gov.cn/xcs/yqfkdt/202002/84faf71e096446 fdb1ae44939ba5c528.shtml. Accessed 1 Feb 2020.
Wuhan Municipal Health Commission. Wuhan Municipal Health and Health Commission’s Briefing on the Current Pneumonia Epidemic Situation in Our City. Available online: http://wjw.wuhan.gov.cn/front/web/ show Detail/2019123108989 (accessed on 19 January 2020).
Zhao S, Lin Q. Ran J. Musa SS. Yang G. Wang W. et al. Preliminary estimation of the basic reproduction number of the novel coronavirus (2019-nCoV) in China from 2019 to 2020: data-driven analysis in the early phase of the outbreak. Int J Infect Dis 2020b; 92: 214-7 Available from: http//:www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/s1201971220300539.
Kan, B.; Wang, M.; Jing, H.; Xu, H.; Jiang, X.; Yan, M.; Liang, W.; Zheng, H.; Wan, K.; Liu, Q.; et al. Molecular evolution analysis and geographic investigation of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-like virus in palm civets at an animal market and on farms. J. Virol. 2005, 79, 11892–11900.
Ji, W.; Wang, W.; Zhao, X.; Zai, J.; Li, X. Homologous recombination within the spike glycoprotein of the newly identified coronavirus may boost cross-species transmission from snake to human. J. Med. Virol. 2020.
Peiris JSM, Lai ST, Poon LLM, Guan Y, Yam LYC, Lim W, Nicholls J, Yee WKS, Yan WW, Cheung MT, Cheng VCC, Chan KH, Tsang DNC, Yung RWH, Ng TK, Yuen KY. 2003. Coronavirus as a possible cause of severe acute respiratory syndrome. Lancet 361: 1319–1325. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(03)13077-2.
Menachery, V. D.; Yount, B. L., Jr.; Debbink, K.; Agnihothram, S.; Gralinski, L. E.; Plante, J. A.; Graham, R. L.; Scobey, T.; Ge, X. Y.; Donaldson, E. F.; et al. A SARS-like cluster of circulating bat coronaviruses shows potential for human emergence. Nat. Med. 2015, 21, 1508–1513.
Lei-Ping Zeng, a Yu-Tao Gao, a Xing-Yi Ge, a Qian Zhang, a Cheng Peng, a Xing-Lou Yang, a Bing Tan, a Jing Chen, a Aleksei A. Chmura, b Peter Daszak, b Zheng-Li Shia. (2016). Bat Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome-Like Coronavirus WIV1 Encodes an Extra Accessory Protein, ORFX, Involved in Modulation of the Host Immune Response.
Woo PC, Lau SK, Lam CS, Lau CC, Tsang AK, Lau JH, Bai R, Teng JL, Tsang CC, Wang M, Zheng BJ, Chan KH, Yuen KY. 2012. Discovery of seven novel mammalian and avian coronaviruses in the genus Delta coronavirus supports bat coronaviruses as the gene source of Alpha coronavirus and Beta coronavirus and avian coronaviruses as the gene source of Gamma coronavirus and Delta coronavirus. J Virol 86: 3995–4008. http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JVI.06540.
WMHC. Wuhan Municipal Health and Health Commission’s Briefing on the Current Pneumonia Epidemic Situation in Our City. 2020. http://wjw.wuhan. gov.cn/front/web/showDetail/2019123108989. Accessed 1 Feb 2020.
John P. Cunha. fever in adults and children. 2019. https://www.medicinet.com/aches-pain-fever/article.htm.
Justin, w. the wuhan coronavirus, climate change and future epidemics. 2020. https://time.com/5779156/wuhan-coronavirus-climate-change.
Wu JT, Leung K, Leung GM. Nowcasting and forecasting the potential domestic and international spread of the 2019-nCoV outbreak originating in Wuhan, China: a modelling study. Lancet 2020; Available from: http://www.sciencedirect.com/ science/article/pii/S1201971220300539.
Maggie H. Wang et al. (2020). International Journal of infectious diseases: A conceptual model for the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) outbreak in Wuhan, China with individual reaction and governmental action.
WHO. Infection prevention and control during health care when novel coronavirus (nCoV) infection is suspected. Interim Guidance Geneva2020. WHO/2019-nCoV/IPC/v2020.1 Available from: https://www.who.int/publications-detail/infection-prevention-and-control-during-health-care-when-novelcoronavirus-(ncov)-infection-is-suspected.
Bogoch II, Watts A, Thomas-Bachli A, Huber C, Kraemer MUG, Khan K. Pneumonia of unknown etiology in Wuhan, China: potential for international spread via commercial air travel. J Travel Med 2020; doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1056/ NEJMoa2002032.
Xintian Xu, Ping Chen, Jingfang Wang, Jiannan Feng, Hui Zhou, Xuan Li, Wu Zhong & Pei Hao. Evolution of the novel coronavirus from the ongoing Wuhan outbreak and modeling of its spike protein for risk of human transmission. March 2020 Vol. 63 No. 3: 457–460 https://doi.org/10.1007/s11427-020-1637-5.
Xu, X., Chen, P., Wang, J., Feng, J., Zhou, H., Li, X., Zhong, W., and Hao, P. (2020). Evolution of the novel coronavirus from the ongoing Wuhan outbreak and modeling of its spike protein for risk of human transmission. SciChinaLifeSci63, 457–460. https://doi.org/10.1007/s11427-020-1637-5.
Foster. S. Aloe Vera: the succulent with skin soothing Cell Protecting Properties,” Herbs for Health Magazine, 1999. http://www.healthy.net/library/articles/hfh/Aloe.htm.
Kim SO, Kundu JK, Shin YK, Park JH, Cho MH, Kim TY, Surh YJ. 2005. [6]-gingerol inhibits COX-2 expression by blocking the activation of p38 MAP kinase and NF-kappaB in phorbol ester-stimulated mouse skin. Oncogene. 15: 2558–2567.
Wynn SG, Luna SPL, Liu H. 2001. Global acupuncture research: previously untranslated studies. Studies from Brazil. In: Schoen AM, editor. Veterinary acupuncture: ancient art to modern medicine. St Louis (MO): Mosby; p. 53–57.
Shirin Adel PR, Prakash J. 2010. Chemical composition and antioxidant properties of ginger root (Zingiber officinale). JMPR. 4 (23): 2674–2679.
Chaturvedi Dev, Shrivastava Rishi Raj suhane Nidhi. Basketful benefit of citrus lemon. INT Re. J. Pharm. 2016; 7 (6): 1-4 http://dx.doi.org/10.7897/2230-8407.07653.
R. H. Davis, “Aloe vera: A Scientific Approach,” Vantage Press Inc., New York, 1997.
R. J. Sydiskis, D. G. Owen, J. L. Lohr, K. H. Rosler and R. N. Blomster, “Inactivation of Enveloped Viruses by Anthraquinones Extracted from Plants,” Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy, Vol. 35, No. 12, 1991, pp. 2463-2466.http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.35.12.2463.
Tomlinson B, Cockram C. SARS: experience at Prince of Wales Hospital, Hong Kong. Lancet 2003; 361: 1486–7.
Fehr, A. R.; Channappanavar, R.; Perlman, S. Middle East Respiratory Syndrome: Emergence of a Pathogenic Human Coronavirus. Annu. Rev. Med. 2017, 68, 387–399. [CrossRef] [PubMed].
Rahman, A.; Sarkar, A. Risk Factors for Fatal Middle East Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus Infections in Saudi Arabia: Analysis of the WHO Line List, 2013–2018. Am. J. Public Health 2019, 109, 1288–1293.
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) Severe accurate respiratory syndrome—Singapore, 2003. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2003; 52: 405–11.
Wuhan City Health Committee (WCHC). Wuhan Municipal Commission on Health on pneumonia of new coronavirus infection 2020 [21 January 2020]. Available from: http://wjw.wuhan.gov.cn/front/web/showDetail/2020012109083.
Riley S, Fraser C, Donnelly CA, Ghani AC, Abu-Raddad LJ, Hedley AJ, et al. Transmission dynamics of the etiological agent of SARS in Hong Kong: impact of public health interventions. Science 2003; 300: 1961–6.
Lipsitch M, Cohen T, Cooper B, Robins JM, Ma S, James L, et al. Transmission dynamics and control of severe acute respiratory syndrome. Science 2003; 300: 1966–70.
Li Q, Guan X, Wu P, Wang X, Zhou L, Tong Y, et al. Early transmission dynamics in Wuhan, China, of novel coronavirus-infected pneumonia. N. Engl J Med. 2020.https://doi.org/10.1056/NEJMoa2001316.
Wang ShX, Li YM, Sun BC, Zhang SW, Zhao WH, Wei MT, et al. The SARS outbreak in a general hospital in Tianjin, China—the case of super-spreader. Epidemiol Infect 2006; 134: 786–91.
Woolhouse ME, Dye C, Etard JF, Smith T, Charlwood JD, Garnett GP, et al. Heterogeneities in the transmission of infectious agents: implications for the 30. design of control programs. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 1997; 94: 338–42.
Browse journals by subject